(b) Knowledge and skills.
(1) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to adjust fluency when reading aloud grade-level text based on the reading purpose and the nature of the text.
(2) Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:
(A) determine the meaning of grade-level academic English words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;
(B) use context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or ambiguous words;
(C) complete analogies that describe part to whole or whole to part;
(D) identify the meaning of foreign words commonly used in written English with emphasis on Latin and Greek words (e.g., habeus corpus, e pluribus unum, bona fide, nemesis); and
(E) use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine the meanings, syllabication, pronunciations, alternate word choices, and parts of speech of words.
(3) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:
(A) describe multiple themes in a work of fiction;
(B) describe conventions in myths and epic tales (e.g., extended simile, the quest, the hero’s tasks, circle stories); and
(C) analyze how place and time influence the theme or message of a literary work.
(4) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the importance of graphical elements (e.g., capital letters, line length, word position) on the meaning of a poem.
(5) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain a playwright’s use of dialogue and stage directions.
(6) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:
(A) explain the influence of the setting on plot development;
(B) analyze the development of the plot through the internal and external responses of the characters, including their motivations and conflicts; and
(C) analyze different forms of point of view, including first-person, third-person omniscient, and third-person limited.
(7) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to describe the structural and substantive differences between an autobiography or a diary and a fictional adaptation of it.
(8) Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author’s sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to determine the figurative meaning of phrases and analyze how an author’s use of language creates imagery, appeals to the senses, and suggests mood.
(9) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author’s purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the difference between the theme of a literary work and the author’s purpose in an expository text.
(10) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:
(A) evaluate a summary of the original text for accuracy of the main ideas, supporting details, and overall meaning;
(B) distinguish factual claims from commonplace assertions and opinions;
(C) use different organizational patterns as guides for summarizing and forming an overview of different kinds of expository text; and
(D) synthesize and make logical connections between ideas within a text and across two or three texts representing similar or different genres, and support those findings with textual evidence.
(11) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:
(A) analyze the structure of the central argument in contemporary policy speeches (e.g., argument by cause and effect, analogy, authority) and identify the different types of evidence used to support the argument; and
(B) identify such rhetorical fallacies as ad hominem, exaggeration, stereotyping, or categorical claims in persuasive texts.
(12) Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:
(A) follow multi-dimensional instructions from text to complete a task, solve a problem, or perform procedures; and
(B) explain the function of the graphical components of a text.
(13) Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:
(A) interpret both explicit and implicit messages in various forms of media;
(B) interpret how visual and sound techniques (e.g., special effects, camera angles, lighting, music) influence the message;
(C) evaluate various ways media influences and informs audiences; and
(D) assess the correct level of formality and tone for successful participation in various digital media.
(14) Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:
(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;
(B) develop drafts by choosing an appropriate organizational strategy (e.g., sequence of events, cause-effect, compare-contrast) and building on ideas to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing;
(C) revise drafts to ensure precise word choice and vivid images; consistent point of view; use of simple, compound, and complex sentences; internal and external coherence; and the use of effective transitions after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;
(D) edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and
(E) revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.
(15) Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:
(A) write an imaginative story that:
(i) sustains reader interest;
(ii) includes well-paced action and an engaging story line;
(iii) creates a specific, believable setting through the use of sensory details;
(iv) develops interesting characters; and
(v) uses a range of literary strategies and devices to enhance the style and tone; and
(B) write a poem using:
(i) poetic techniques (e.g., rhyme scheme, meter);
(ii) figurative language (e.g., personification, idioms, hyperbole); and
(iii) graphic elements (e.g., word position).
(16) Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write a personal narrative that has a clearly defined focus and communicates the importance of or reasons for actions and/or consequences.
(17) Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:
(A) write a multi-paragraph essay to convey information about a topic that:
(i) presents effective introductions and concluding paragraphs;
(ii) contains a clearly stated purpose or controlling idea;
(iii) is logically organized with appropriate facts and details and includes no extraneous information or inconsistencies;
(iv) accurately synthesizes ideas from several sources; and
(v) uses a variety of sentence structures, rhetorical devices, and transitions to link paragraphs;
(B) write a letter that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly context;
(C) write responses to literary or expository texts that demonstrate the writing skills for multi-paragraph essays and provide sustained evidence from the text using quotations when appropriate; and
(D) produce a multimedia presentation involving text and graphics using available technology.
(18) Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write a persuasive essay to the appropriate audience that:
(A) establishes a clear thesis or position;
(B) considers and responds to the views of others and anticipates and answers reader concerns and counter-arguments; and
(C) includes evidence that is logically organized to support the author’s viewpoint and that differentiates between fact and opinion.
(19) Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
(A) identify, use, and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:
(i) verbs (perfect and progressive tenses) and participles;
(ii) appositive phrases;
(iii) adverbial and adjectival phrases and clauses;
(iv) conjunctive adverbs (e.g., consequently, furthermore, indeed);
(v) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;
(vi) relative pronouns (e.g., whose, that, which);
(vii) subordinating conjunctions (e.g., because, since); and
(viii) transitions for sentence to sentence or paragraph to paragraph coherence;
(B) write complex sentences and differentiate between main versus subordinate clauses; and
(C) use a variety of complete sentences (e.g., simple, compound, complex) that include properly placed modifiers, correctly identified antecedents, parallel structures, and consistent tenses.
(20) Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:
(A) use conventions of capitalization; and
(B) recognize and use punctuation marks including:
(i) commas after introductory words, phrases, and clauses; and
(ii) semicolons, colons, and hyphens.
(21) Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.
(22) Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:
(A) brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and
(B) apply steps for obtaining and evaluating information from a wide variety of sources and create a written plan after preliminary research in reference works and additional text searches.
(23) Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:
(A) follow the research plan to gather information from a range of relevant print and electronic sources using advanced search strategies;
(B) categorize information thematically in order to see the larger constructs inherent in the information;
(C) record bibliographic information (e.g., author, title, page number) for all notes and sources according to a standard format; and
(D) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.
(24) Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:
(A) narrow or broaden the major research question, if necessary, based on further research and investigation; and
(B) utilize elements that demonstrate the reliability and validity of the sources used (e.g., publication date, coverage, language, point of view) and explain why one source is more useful than another.
(25) Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:
(A) draws conclusions and summarizes or paraphrases the findings in a systematic way;
(B) marshals evidence to explain the topic and gives relevant reasons for conclusions;
(C) presents the findings in a meaningful format; and
(D) follows accepted formats for integrating quotations and citations into the written text to maintain a flow of ideas.
(26) Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:
(A) listen to and interpret a speaker’s purpose by explaining the content, evaluating the delivery of the presentation, and asking questions or making comments about the evidence that supports a speaker’s claims;
(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems; and
(C) draw conclusions about the speaker’s message by considering verbal communication (e.g., word choice, tone) and nonverbal cues (e.g., posture, gestures, facial expressions).
(27) Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to present a critique of a literary work, film, or dramatic production, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.
(28) Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in discussions, plan agendas with clear goals and deadlines, set time limits for speakers, take notes, and vote on key issues.